Measurements for Composable Performance Models of Cyber-Physical Network Components


This project aims for a measurement-based approach towards composable models for CPNs. We set up a measurement testbed that supports the evaluation of a CPN benchmark application using reproducible measurements of different wireless technologies and protocol stacks. Our approach is to use a two-wheeled inverted pendulum (TWIP), of which a Segway is a well-known instantiation, as benchmark example. This software emulation can be evaluated in combination with a variety of wireless protocol stack alternatives in an automated measurement series.

We analyze the protocol stack in detail, using composable models that we parameterize using the measurement results. Network calculus provides a framework that allows for combining performance models. Stochastic Network Calculus allows to give stochastic performance bounds on delays. Temporal network calculus allows to model the impact of error-prone wireless links and contention-based multi-access networks on latency. We investigate the influence of the software stack execution on the network service quality by different processing platforms. For effective collaboration with other projects of the Priority Program "Cyber-Physical Networking", we will share measurement data generated in the testbed.


The goal of MOONSHINE's first work area was the investigation and measurement of networked control systems. The main target of this investigation was a wireless two-way inverted pendulum robot [Zoppi, 2020] [Music, 2019] [Gallenmüller, 2018]. This robot was designed to be affordable, easily replicable, and modifiable. In addition to the measurements of this robot, a wireless testbed facility was created to allow control over a wireless environment [Gallenmüller, 2019]. Therefore, the existing testbed was equipped with two rf-shielded boxes. This testing facility was used to apply a real wireless link to a software emulation. The wireless testing facility utilizes programmable attenuators to impact the channel quality selectively. Based on these results, a wireless channel emulation was created [Bergbauer, 2017].

The second work area derived models from the measurements performed in the previous work area. Measurements and the created testbed laid the foundation to derive the values needed for service curve parameter estimation. Bergbauer [Bergbauer, 2017] used these results to create models, for instance, to predict a success probability for the wireless channel. Various impacting factors for the wireless channels and their subsequent impact on the different layers of the OSI model were investigated [Gallenmüller, 2019]. A particular focus was put on high-level performance indicators for networked control systems. These results were used to predict the quality of control. The predictions led to the development and investigation of strategies to improve the robustness of networked control systems. One of these models was implemented in the NCSbench platform, allowing the compensation of sub-second connection losses for the balancing robot [Zoppi, 2020] [Music, 2019].

The third work area involved the validation and interaction with other projects of the SPP. During the runtime of the SPP, several successful collaborations with other subprojects were established. Together with the subprojects ("Optimal Co-Design of Wireless Resource Management and Multi-Loop Networked Control (Hirche, Kellerer)" and "Cooperative Consensus-based Control of Multi-agent Systems over Wireless Channels" (Raisch, Stanczak)) a benchmark for CPN was developed [Zoppi, 2020] [Music, 2019] [Gallenmüller, 2018]. The framework, including the two-way inverted pendulum robot, was replicated across multiple sites to cross-validate the results. Despite different environments, a replication of results was possible. Besides the successful collaboration on the benchmarking framework, a collaboration with other projects could be established. The results of this collaboration led to a joint paper [Gallenmüller, 2019]. There, a concept for gain scheduled control was investigated, where the control algorithm can be adapted to the current network conditions. The PRRT protocol was used to collect and evaluate the network conditions during runtime. The shielded testbed environment was used as a reference platform to perform measurements on the investigated system.

Related publications

2020-04-01 Sebastian Gallenmüller, Johannes Naab, Iris Adam, Georg Carle, “5G QoS: Impact of Security Functions on Latency,” in 2020 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS 2020), Budapest, Hungary, Apr. 2020. [Pdf] [Bib]
2020-01-01 Samuele Zoppi, Onur Ayan, Fabio Molinari, Zenit Music, Sebastian Gallenmüller, Georg Carle, Wolfgang Kellerer, “NCSbench: Reproducible Benchmarking Platform for Networked Control Systems,” in 2020 IEEE 17th Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC) (CCNC 2020), Las Vegas, USA, Jan. 2020. [Pdf] [Bib]
2019-03-01 Sebastian Gallenmüller, René Glebke, Stephan Günther, Eric Hauser, Maurice Leclaire, Stefan Reif, Jan Rüth, Andreas Schmidt, Georg Carle, Thorsten Herfet, Wolfgang Schröder-Preikschat, Klaus Wehrle, “Enabling Wireless Network Support for Gain Scheduled Control,” in 2nd International Workshop on Edge Systems, Analytics and Networking (EdgeSys ’19), Dresden, Germany, Mar. 2019. [Url] [Pdf] [DOI] [Bib]
2019-01-01 Zenit Music, Fabio Molinari, Sebastian Gallenmüller, Onur Ayan, Samuele Zoppi, Wolfgang Kellerer, Georg Carle, Thomas Seel, Jörg Raisch, “Design of a Networked Controller for a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Robot,” IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 52, no. 20, pp. 169–174, 2019. [Pdf] [Bib]
2018-04-01 Sebastian Gallenmüller, Stephan Günther, Maurice Leclaire, Samuele Zoppi, Fabio Molinari, Richard Schöffauer, Wolfgang Kellerer, Georg Carle, “Benchmarking Networked Control Systems,” in 1st Workshop on Benchmarking Cyber-Physical Networks and Systems, Oporto, Portugal, Apr. 2018. [Pdf] [Bib]
2018-01-01 Sebastian Gallenmüller, Dominik Scholz, Florian Wohlfart, Quirin Scheitle, Paul Emmerich, Georg Carle, “High-Performance Packet Processing and Measurements (Invited Paper),” in 10th International Conference on Communication Systems & Networks (COMSNETS 2018), Bangalore, India, Jan. 2018. [Pdf] [Bib]
2016-09-01 Sebastian Gallenmüller, Maurice Leclaire, Stephan Günther, Georg Carle, “MOONSHINE – Measurements for Composable Performance Models of Cyber-Physical Network Components,” in International Symposium on Networked Cyber-Physical Systems (NET-CPS 2016), Garching, Germany, Sep. 2016. [Poster] [Bib]

Finished student theses

Author Title Type Advisors Year Links
Eric Hauser Evaluating Wireless Communication Channels Based on IEEE 802.11 BA Stephan M. Günther, Maurice Leclaire, Sebastian Gallenmüller 2019
Jonas Andre Link Aggregation of Multiple Wireless Interfaces MA Stephan M. Günther, Sebastian Gallenmüller, Maurice Leclaire 2019
Mohamad Nour Moazzen Wireless Networking Testbed HiWi Maurice Leclaire, Stephan M. Günther 2018 Pdf
Erkin Kirdan A symbolic Fourier-Motzkin Solver IDP Maurice Leclaire 2017 Pdf
Noah Bergbauer Modelling Wireless Communication Channels BA Stephan M. Günther, Maurice Leclaire, Sebastian Gallenmüller 2017
Thuy Tran Development of a Demonstrator for a Wireless Cyber-Physical Network IDP Sebastian Gallenmüller, Maurice Leclaire, Stephan M. Günther 2017
Nikita Basargin Implementation of a Demonstration System for a Wireless Cyber-Physical Network IDP Sebastian Gallenmüller, Maurice Leclaire, Stephan M. Günther 2017
Tobias Betz Open-Source Cyber-Physical Network Infrastructure MA Maurice Leclaire, Sebastian Gallenmüller 2017 Pdf